Silicon Valley company claims the parties may "back up brains" controversy: whether to fly

  In the case of "frozen remains" controversial project is still ongoing, "Backup brain" for compliance, how?Believe it or not, but Nectome company has recently successfully conducted a road show to raise funds, there are already 25 million dollars of potential customers to pay a deposit to Nectome company, we booked the uncertain prospects of service。   Guangzhou Daily reporter Wen Junhua compile all media in January this year, the company's founder Nectome McIntyre and McCANNA hired a pathologist, in Portland, Oregon rented for a few weeks, waiting to buy a fresh bodies。 In February, they finally died hours after a woman get her body。
  In the hospital morgue, they put the team's first ASC freezing for the first time used in the human body, after six hours of freezing preservation process, took out the dead brain, cut into thin slices, and imaged with an electron microscope。
"While nearly three-hour delay caused some damage, but women's brains still one of the best preserved ever, this method can not only save reserved external details, but also to preserve the internal details。 "McIntyre said the team hopes to soon after the implementation of the program to be able to freeze ASC terminally ill patient before death, in order to save more intact brain。
  Technical processes: goals corrosion antifreeze simple terms, Nectome hope to achieve that in the most destructive way carefully preserved fresh brain。
The key to this technology is preserved connector brain, including all synaptic connections between neurons comprehensive catalog of all of them and。
When dead, the brain neurons connected degradation, human memory disappeared, in order to prevent this, Nectome designed freezing process comprises two steps – aldehyde stabilized cryopreservation method (ASC freezing) stored linker integrity。   The first step, the quick-fixing agent glutaraldehyde quickly injected into the brain tissue, coagulation synapses, prevent decay, the brain into something similar to a soft rubber-like。
Nectome noted that glutaraldehyde has long been used to store biological material, including whole animal。
Doing so temporarily save the brain neurons connect body, even a year can be saved。   The second step, long-term storage to the brain, which is also a high concentration of ethylene glycol antifreeze injected (injected with a substance automobile radiator), in order to prevent the brain in the form of ice is frozen to minus 122 deg.] C before。
  It is envisaged that Nectome, in order to preserve the integrity of the brain after death need to be fixed at a person on the artificial heart-lung machine, anesthesia, to make protein denaturation glutaraldehyde transport from the carotid artery into the brain, replacing the blood inside the vessel; was then slowly added ethylene glycol cryoprotectant; brain was finally after about 6 hours of perfusion。
  In other words, Nectome best brains to save the program and physician-assisted euthanasia have combined to achieve its legitimacy。
Currently, physician-assisted euthanasia in five US states have legalized。   Aldehyde stabilized cryopreservation method (ASC freezing) a first step, the quick-fixing agent glutaraldehyde quickly injected into the brain tissue, coagulation synapses, prevent decay, the brain into something similar to a soft rubber-like。
  The second step, long-term storage to the brain, which is also a high concentration of ethylene glycol antifreeze injected (injected with a substance automobile radiator), in order to prevent the brain in the form of ice is frozen to minus 122 deg.] C before。
  Save Brain: Although the award-winning "Backup brain" idea for the average person crazy, but not crazy founder Nectome MacIntyre, but an accomplished young scientists, has been working with MIT Boyden's top neuroscientists to study cooperation, and has served as chief scientist of the "21st century Medicine" company。   In 2016, McIntyre's another low temperature and biologists Fey, has developed ASC freezing method, successfully saved the rabbit brain, even connect postsynaptic neurons are well preserved, won the brain to save Foundation "small mammal brain preservation Award", received a $ 27,000 bonus。
  In March this year, McIntyre in the race successfully saved a pig's brain, even its full extent synapses can glance under the electron microscope, the brain to get the brain to save Foundation US $ 80,000 prize money to save the game again。   So far, Nectome has raised $ 1 million in funding, including $ 120,000-known Silicon Valley venture incubator YCombinator provided, and $ 960,000 US National Institute of Mental Health to provide for "full brain imaging and nano-scale conservation" Federal funding。
Currently, about one third of the funds were transferred to the Boyden of MIT laboratory, the two sides are working hard to expand the technology with ASC freezing and MIT microscope – This technique allows the brain tissue expansion 10?20 times, in order to facilitate some of the measurement data。
  New wine in old bottles: from futurology "Backup brain" idea is not new things。
Famous American inventor, thinker and futurist Kurzweil mentions the "Backup brain" point of view in its 2005 published book "singularity approaching", he pointed out that 2045 years ago, people will be able to the thought of the brain all uploaded to the computer, to achieve eternal life in the digital realm。
The so-called singularity refers to in the near future a period of rapid development of science and technology。   "With nanotechnology, biotechnology exponentially accelerate the development of the next 20 years will be a substantial increase in human intelligence, fundamentally reshape the future of humanity will occur。
In the 'singularity' is approaching, the machine will be self-improvement through artificial intelligence, beyond the human, thus opening a new era。
"Kurzweil says。   Many believe that the scientific community bigwigs are set of theories, including the frozen remains of the resurrection, "Backup brain" digital immortality, etc., Kurzweil himself made it clear that death will accept service remains frozen, waiting for "50 years after the resurrection "。 In 25 Nectome of potential customers, there is the founder of the famous Silicon Valley venture incubator YCombinator, Nectome company's investors Altman, who paid reservation "Backup brain" once the news service by some media misinterpreted as he was " about euthanasia, science dedication ", which in turn again Nectome breaking news and companies 'backup brain' services onto front desk。   Parties to the dispute: whether to fly in the final analysis, the "Backup brain" is not a final service in order to preserve biological tissues of the brain, but the brain in order to read information stored in their thinking after death。
Currently, scientists first point of contention is that the information can be read brain death?And then thinking whether it makes sense to save the dead?  Chairman of the Foundation Hayworth save the brain is envisaged supporters "Backup brain"。
"If the death of the brain, like a computer shut down, like, but this does not mean that the information does not exist。 "Hayworth said。
  But the difficulty lies in reading the information the brain, scientists have so far to the underlying principles of information encoded in the brain consciousness have no idea – but the current study found that connections between parts of the brain in the process of memory formation in neurons – synapses – will be expanded, while in the process of forgetting that occur in synaptic would shrink or even disappear。   Princeton University professor of neurobiology calculated Sebastian had proposed "linker" hypothesis, assuming that human consciousness all the information stored in the neurons in the connection relationship。 Even so, the brain is connected FIG incredible complexity, a single neural 8000 may be connected to the nerve, and the brain contains millions of cells, even after the imaging of the brain in mice is 1 mm2 in an arduous task。   In other words, Nectome company's current "brain Backup" service can only be done to the anatomy of the brain synapses completely sealed off, as if the future of science can obtain information read synapses breakthrough needed to be next time decomposition。
  As for the meaning of "Backup brain" is a matter of opinion。
" 'Backup brain' of the social significance of a generation can pass on the wisdom of experience。
Those detours walked, tried wrong, future children and grandchildren may not have to go through that again, less make mistakes, so, the next generation of talent is growing。 "Nectome founder McIntyre said。
  But for some other scientists, "Backup brain" is nothing but transhumanists have "Desperate false illusions."。
"With our brains repository to increase the burden for future generations, it would be foolish behavior。
Do we leave them do not have enough problems?"The United States McGill University neuroscientist Hendricks said," the 21st century so rich and eternal life to spend money and resources, I hope that the future of humanity will be shocked。 This is a joke, is not it?They're like cartoon villains。 "。